What is Ruminococcus?

June 02, 2023 2 min read

What is Ruminococcus?

Ruminococcus is a type of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that is commonly found in the human gut microbiota. It is a member of the family Ruminococcaceae, which is one of the most abundant bacterial families in the human gut.

Ruminococcus bacteria are known for their ability to ferment complex carbohydrates, which is an important process for the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate. Butyrate is a key energy source for colonocytes and has been linked to several health benefits, including improved gut barrier function and reduced inflammation. Ruminococcus bacteria have also been shown to play a role in the metabolism of amino acids and bile acids, as well as the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin.

Research has identified several species of Ruminococcus that are particularly abundant in the human gut and have been linked to specific health outcomes. Some of these species include:

  1. Ruminococcus bromii: This species is known for its ability to break down resistant starch, a type of dietary fiber that is not digested in the small intestine. Resistant starch is fermented by R. bromii in the large intestine, leading to the production of butyrate and other beneficial SCFAs.
  2. Ruminococcus champanellensis: This species has been found to be more abundant in the gut microbiota of individuals with healthy glucose metabolism, suggesting a potential role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
  3. Ruminococcus gnavus: This species has been linked to the production of toxic metabolites that may contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, other studies have suggested that R. gnavus may also have anti-inflammatory properties and could play a beneficial role in the gut microbiota.
  4. Ruminococcus obeum: This species has been shown to produce a variety of SCFAs, including butyrate and propionate, which have been linked to improved gut health and reduced risk of disease.

While Ruminococcus bacteria are generally considered to be beneficial for human health, there are some studies that have suggested a potential link between certain species of Ruminococcus and the development of gut dysbiosis and disease. For example, a 2018 study found that an overgrowth of Ruminococcus gnavus was associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Overall, the research suggests that Ruminococcus bacteria are an important component of the human gut microbiota and play a key role in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates and the production of beneficial metabolites such as butyrate. While some species of Ruminococcus have been linked to disease, further research is needed to fully understand their potential roles in the gut microbiota and their impact on human health.


  1. Flint HJ, Duncan SH, Scott KP, Louis P. Interactions and competition within the microbial community of the human colon: links between diet and health. Environ Microbiol. 2007 Nov;9(11):1101-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01281.x. PMID: 17956537.
  2. Lopez-Siles M, Khan TM, Duncan SH, Harmsen HJM, Garcia-Gil LJ, Flint HJ. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Mar;78(5):420-8. doi: 10.1128/AEM.06858-11. Epub 2011 Dec

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