The brief history of Human Milk Oligosaccarides

July 03, 2023 2 min read

The brief history of Human Milk Oligosaccarides

  • 1954: The first HMO, lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I), is discovered by German researcher Karl Meyer.
  • 1980s: More HMOs are identified by different researchers, including lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LDFH I), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), and 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL).
  • 1990s: Researchers begin to study the potential health benefits of HMOs, including their ability to prevent the attachment of harmful bacteria in the gut.
  • 2000s: Advances in technology, including mass spectrometry and gene sequencing, make it easier to study and produce HMOs in large quantities.
  • 2015: The first commercially available HMO, 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL), is launched by the company Jennewein Biotechnologie.
  • 2016: The Human Milk Oligosaccharides for Health and Development (HMO4HD) consortium is established to further study the potential benefits of HMOs.
  • 2018: Nestlé launches an infant formula containing two HMOs, 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT).
  • 2020: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approves the use of HMOs, specifically 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL), in infant formula.
  • 2021: US-based nutrition start-up Layer Origin Nutrition has launched seven supplements containing human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for both adults and children.

 

References:

  • Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: prebiotics and beyond. Nutr Rev. 2009 Feb;67 Suppl 2:S183-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00189.x. PMID: 19386040.
  • Thurl S, Munzert M, Boehm G, Matthews C, Stahl B. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. Nutr Rev. 2017 Jun 1;75(6):920-933. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux037. PMID: 28938796.
  • Zivkovic AM, German JB, Lebrilla CB, Mills DA. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16;108 Suppl 1:4653-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1000083107. Epub 2010 Dec 22. PMID: 21177492; PMCID: PMC3063602.
  • McGuire MK, McGuire MA. Got bacteria? The astounding, yet not-so-surprising, microbiome of human milk. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Apr;32:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jul 3. PMID: 24997026; PMCID: PMC4250204.
  • Boehm G, Moro G. Structural and functional aspects of prebiotics used in infant nutrition. J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2502S-2504S. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.12.2502S. PMID: 19022964.
  • Jennewein Biotechnologie. Jennewein Biotechnologie announces successful market launch of its lead HMO product 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL). 2015. Available at: https://www.jennewein-biotech.de/newsroom/press-releases/jennewein-biotechnologie-announces-successful-market-launch-its-lead-hmo. Accessed May 5, 2023.
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides for Health and Development (HMO4HD) consortium. Available at: https://www.hmo4hd.org/. Accessed May 5, 2023.
  • Nestlé. Nestlé Health Science launches two Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) for use in infant formula. 2018. Available at: https://www.nestle.com/media/news/nestle-health-science-launches-two-human-milk-oligosaccharides-hmos-infant-formula. Accessed May 5, 2023.
  • European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the safety and suitability of 2'-O-fucosyllactose as a novel food ingredient in several food categories. EFSA Journal. 2020;18(1):5931. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2020.5931.


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