COMPARING HMO TO XOS, GOS, AND FOS
HOW PREBIOTICS DIFFER
There are a number of prebiotics one could take to work in tandem with the probiotics in their microbiome in trying to achieve the proper balance. Traditional prebiotics such as XOS, GOS, and FOS (inulin) are fairly well known and mainstream at this juncture.
FOS, XOS, and GOS are oligosaccharides that usually contain only repeating sugar units such as fructose, xylose, and galactose. These are essentially the "old guard" when it comes to probiotics. HMOs on the other hand, also contain sugar units but in addition, they contain other functional groups like acetylglucosamine.
Essentially, galactooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and inulin are all attempting to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk and promote a bacterial microflora that closely resembles that of a breast-fed infant who ingests HMO. But GOS and FOS are structurally different from the oligosaccharides occurring in human milk.
HMO IS UNIQUE
DIFFERENT FROM XOS, FOS, GOS
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are polymers of galactose and fructose, respectively. Fructose is not naturally found as a building block for human milk oligosaccharides. N-acetylneuraminic acid and fucose, which are abundant constituents of HMO and may be important for some HMO functions, are not part of GOS or FOS.
HMOs are prebiotics, serving as “fuel” for certain desired bacteria, but not for others. Bacterial exo or endoglycosidases digest or cleave off some or all of the HMO building blocks, leaving behind either SCFA or truncated and modified HMO that may have different effects than the intact HMO. SCFA and HMO have several effects either on the intestinal epithelium itself or, after passing the intestinal epithelial barrier, on other cells and tissues, e.g., the immune system.
HMOs have other, structure-specific effects on a local and systemic level that can not be mimicked by the structurally unrelated GOS, FOS or inulin.
Ninonuevo, M. R., & Bode, L. (2008, July 1). Infant Formula Oligosaccharides Opening the Gates (for Speculation): Commentary on the article by Barrat et al. on page 34. Pediatric Research. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2008136?error=cookies_not_supported&code=42d4b7ab-e85b-45fb-86f9-18532ce99c53
YOUR GUIDE TO HUMAN MILK OLIGOSACCHARIDE
- 1. WHAT IS HMO?
- 2. HISTORY OF HMO?
- 3. HOW IS HMO MADE?
- 4. IMPACT ON GUT HEALTH
- 5. IMPACT ON IMMUNE SYSTEM
- 6. HMO vs. OTHER PREBIOTICS
- 7. PureHMO® LINE
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